Salvador Mascarenhas
Assistant Professor

Ecole Normale Supérieure
Department of Cognitive Studies
29 rue d'Ulm, room 203 C
75005 Paris, France


I am an Assistant Professor at Ecole Normale Supérieure’s Department of Cognitive Studies (DEC) and a member of Institut Jean Nicod. I got my PhD at New York University’s Department of Linguistics in 2014, where I wrote a dissertation on the relationship between human reasoning, natural language semantics, and the philosophy of language. Between 2014 and 2016, I was a Junior Research Fellow at St Catherine’s College, Oxford, affiliated with the Faculty of Philosophy.


Research in linguistic semantics and the philosophy of language in the past forty years has produced sophisticated mathematical models that represent the meanings of natural language utterances and explain how meanings relate to one another to form entailment patterns. At the same time, research on human reasoning within psychology has discovered a wealth of fallacious inference patterns, establishing that human reasoning is fallible in highly predictable ways. The psychological study of reasoning has been characterized by extensive experimental work analyzed in terms of theories focusing on the processes of reasoning. On the other hand, linguistic semantics has a longstanding tradition of formal rigor and a focus on logical thinking, but it has so far largely ignored fallacies. The two fields overlap significantly, but they have progressed almost completely in parallel, with little interaction. The main aim of my research is to fill that gap by extending linguistic semantics to the study of human reasoning.

My approach has two main components. The first involves recasting the account of human reasoning known as mental model theory in a formally explicit system, incorporating relevant insights from my work on inquisitive semantics. Together with Philipp Koralus I have developed a version of mental-models theory that locates the origin of reasoning failures in a question-asking and answering process. The second component is an interpretation-based theory of (some) reasoning failures that explains these failures in terms of modern theories of implicature. This second theory contrasts with its reasoning-based competitors in that it assumes as a working hypothesis a logically sound reasoning module that operates on interpretations more complex than meets the eye.

From these two rigorously defined theories, different predictions emerge. These predictions allow for a comparison between the two theories, providing a principled way to tease apart the contributions of general-purpose reasoning mechanisms and of interpretive procedures in our failures of masoning.

I also have an active interest in, and have worked on, the following topics in semantics and philosophy of language

  • the semantics of natural language questions and erotetic logics;
  • dialog coherence in the pragmatics of questions and answers;
  • dynamic semantics for anaphora and presupposition;
  • alternative semantics for indefinites and disjunction;
  • positive polarity and free choice.

Papers and handouts

Below is a select list of publications, manuscripts, and talks I have given, with links to pdf versions of papers or handouts.


Fall 2018

CO2 Introduction to Linguistics

Mondays 5.00pm–7.00, room L367 (in the physics department, 24 rue Lhomond; you can access the physics department from the 29 Ulm entrance with an ENS card)

Course description

This course is an introduction to linguistics, the principled study of human language from a psychological, social, and formal perspective. The course will introduce the fundamental concepts from several subfields of linguistics. In particular, we will look in some detail at morphology, syntax, semantics, and phonology. We will also discuss the neurobiological bases of human language, psycholinguistics, sociolinguistics, and language acquisition.

First lecture

The course starts on Monday October 1. It is imperative that you come to the first lecture. We will be rescheduling the TD sessions to try to fit as many students’ preferences as we can. If you want to take the course but cannot make it to the first lecture, you should immediately so you can participate in the rescheduling discussion.

Assessment (validation)

  1. weekly homework assignments (60%);
  2. a final exam (30%);
  3. attendance and participation in discussions in class and TD (10%).

LC2 Super Semantics

With Philippe Schlenker, Mondays 1.00pm–3.30, Salle Ribot (29 rue d’Ulm)

Course description

While formal semantics has been a success story of contemporary linguistics, it has been narrowly focused on spoken language. Systematic extensions of its research program have recently been explored: beyond spoken language, beyond human language, beyond language proper, and even beyond systems with an overt syntax. First, the development of sign language semantics calls for systems that integrate logical semantics with a rich iconic component. This semantics-with-iconicity is also crucial to understand the interaction between co-speech gestures and logical operators, an important point of comparison for sign languages. Second, several recent articles have proposed analyses of the semantics/pragmatics of primate alarm calls, an important topical extension of semantics. Third, recent research has developed a semantics/pragmatics for music, based in part on insights from iconic semantics. Finally, the methods of formal semantics have newly been applied to reasoning and to concepts, which do not have a syntax that can be directly observed. The overall result is a far broader typology of meaning operations in nature than was available a few years ago. The course will offer a survey of some of these results, with topics that will change from year to year.

First lecture

The course starts on Monday October 1.

Assessment (validation)

Participants will work on small projects (e.g. literature reviews, formal analyses of a set of phenomena, experimental designs). Specifically:

  1. a 2-page short essay (aka a “squib”) will be due early in the semester, and
  2. a mini term paper (at most 10 pages) will be due at the end of the semester.

Course website

The course website has up-to-date information on the syllabus, tentative schedule, writing guidelines, and more. Check it regularly if you’re taking the course!